Eye Health

The best way to maintain your eye health is to know how to care for them. This section shows you how your eyes work, explains how vision conditions change what you see, and lists some common eye diseases.

Eye Anatomy

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CORNEA
Transparent front segment of the eye that covers the iris, pupil and anterior chamber and provides most of an eye's optical power.

PUPIL
Variable-sized, circular opening in center of iris; it appears as a black circle and it regulates amount of light that enters the eye.

IRIS
Pigmented tissue lying behind cornea that (1) gives color to eye and (2) controls amount of light entering eye by varying size of black pupillary opening; separates the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber.

LENS
Natural lens of eye; transparent intraocular tissue that helps bring rays of light to focus on the retina.

RETINA
Part of the eye that converts images into electrical impulses that are sent along the optic nerve for transmission back to the brain. Consists of many layers that include rods and cones.

MACULA
Small, specialized, central area of the retina responsible for acute central vision.

VITREOUS
Transparent, colorless, gelatinous mass; fills rear two-thirds of the interior of the eyeball, between the lens and the retina.

OPTIC NERVE
Largest sensory nerve of eye; carries impulses for sight from retina to brain.